Científicos británicos anunciaron el viernes que han conseguido detectar el cáncer de útero con un sencillo análisis de orina, mucho menos doloroso e invasivo que las pruebas existentes en la actualidad.

Actualmente, la prueba consiste en realizar una biopsia, es decir, tomar una muestra de células rasgando en el interior del útero, lo que a veces también requiere la inserción de un telescopio fino.

Se trata de un procedimiento doloroso, que el 31% de pacientes tiene que repetir debido a problemas técnicos o a un dolor intolerable que dificulta el examen.

Pero un equipo de científicos de la Universidad de Mánchester ha desarrollado una nueva herramienta de detección, basada en la recogida de orina o secreciones vaginales, que las mujeres podrían realizar ellas mismas en casa.

Según este estudio, publicado en la revista Nature Communications, el nuevo sistema diagnosticó correctamente al 91,7% de las mujeres que realmente tenían cáncer de endometrio, o cáncer del cuerpo del útero, que es distinto del cáncer de cuello uterino, detectado con una simple citología.

En el caso de las mujeres sin cáncer de endometrio, la prueba tuvo una eficacia del 88,9% para diagnosticarlas como negativas.

«Nuestros resultados demuestran que las células cancerosas del útero pueden detectarse en muestras de orina y vagina utilizando un microscopio», explicó la profesora Emma Crosbie, directora del estudio, citada en un comunicado.

Este método podría utilizarse para «detectar a las personas sospechosas de padecer cáncer de útero» y que sean examinadas en profundidad si la prueba resulta positiva.

«Las que den negativo estarán tranquilas sin tener que someterse a procedimientos desagradables, invasivos, que provoquen ansiedad y son costosos», afirmó.

Este «prometedor» estudio, en el que han participado hasta ahora 216 mujeres, 103 de las cuales sospechaban o sabían que tenían cáncer de útero, tendrá que ser «confirmado en el marco de un estudio más amplio», precisó esta experta en oncología ginecológica.

El cáncer de endometrio es el sexto cáncer más común en las mujeres, con un estimado de 382.000 nuevos diagnósticos y 89.900 muertes por la enfermedad en todo el mundo en 2018.

La mayoría de mujeres son tratadas a tiempo tras la aparición de los primeros síntomas -incluida la aparición de hemorragias después de la menopausia-, pero el 20% de quienes son diagnosticadas en una fase avanzada de la enfermedad sólo tiene un 15% de posibilidades de vivir más de 5 años.

30 comentarios en «Un simple test de orina puede detectar el cáncer de útero, según estudio británico»
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