DANITZA CLAROS |

Para hablar de Carnaval en Bolivia es necesario recurrir a profesionales, quienes accedieron a dar su aporte a través de su preparación y vivencia. Los expertos brindan un “viaje de sabiduría” por la cosmovisión andina, las tradiciones y la cultura que se manifiesta en torno a la “fiesta mayor”.

“Las raíces ancestrales del Carnaval Andino”

Título que presenta Esther Balboa Bustamante, profesional en varias áreas como Psicología y Etnopsicología entre otras. Los Tiempos recurrió a la experta para entender de un modo más integral el concepto de “Carnaval en Bolivia”.

Balboa escribe: “El Carnaval es la festividad más importante en los valles y alturas de Cochabamba y de todo el país, incluida toda Iberoamérica, donde, por supuesto, destaca Brasil. En el mundo andino, el Carnaval dio comienzo en enero con Tunupa-Ekeko de La Paz y terminará en abril con Pascua Carnaval en los valles”.

Estas fechas, explica, se rigen al antiguo calendario lunar con el que se gobernaba el llamado Inkario y coincide con el calendario gregoriano que marca los días movibles de Carnaval y Semana Santa. Normalmente se festeja entre febrero y abril.

En esta celebración, continúa, los habitantes de las alturas, valles y llanos de los Andes hacían largos viajes para reunirse con sus familias de otros ayllus; así mismo, buscar esposa, y realizar dos rituales muy importantes: el cambio de ropa de los adolescentes, o warachiko, y la toma de nombre de los niños con el corte de pelo, o uma rutuku. A las personas no les importaba viajar cientos o decenas de kilómetros, llevando de visita las primeras cosechas de sus campos, asimismo llamas y conejos. Esto creaba un flujo enorme de traslados y creaba lazos de amistad e intercambio económico a través de los pequeños e improvisados mercados llamados tampu otambo.

En este tiempo era muy importante la socialización de las costumbres y el respeto por ellas. En los valles los huéspedes eran recibidos con taki, o, canciones, a las cuales respondía la visita con otro taki, de esta manera se daba el ancestral takipayanaku, con muestras de alegría y chascarrillos. Se los recibía con flores y abundante comida de la mishka, o cosecha temprana. Todo el tiempo se organizaban diversos juegos de competencia como el riwi, choka, wayruru, pichika, jilankula, challko chima y otros juegos, hoy desaparecidos.

En todas partes, se trataba de contentar y espantar a supay, el ánima de las montañas que, en estas épocas, dice la leyenda, salía para comerse a las personas y a las cosechas desmoronando los cerros y trayendo la mazamorra. Se tranquilizaba escuchando la música y recibiendo la ch’alla de todos los lugares, especialmente de trabajo agrícola y minero.

El Carnaval de Oruro y su amplia trascendencia

No se puede hablar de Carnaval sin otorgar mención al majestuoso Carnaval de Oruro, declarado Obra Maestra del Patrimonio Oral e Intangible de la Humanidad. Para tal propósito, tomamos contacto con un notable fotógrafo de La fiesta de los sentidos, título plasmado en una de sus más importantes entregas fotográficas, un libro en el cual concede todo el protagonismo al Carnaval de Oruro. Dicha obra es del connotado fotógrafo Diego Echevers Torrez.

“El Carnaval de Oruro se asienta sobre visiones y prácticas andinas muy antiguas. Desde tiempos remotos, el sentido de la celebración ocupa un escenario que ahora conocemos como Carnaval, el cual se expresa con la llegada del tiempo de la cosecha, en un ciclo agrícola, y en una temporalidad húmeda, es un sentido metafórico llamado ‘Cuerpo y vientre materno’, que representa la celebración de la abundancia. Con el tiempo, y los distintos actores del proceso. En la ciudad, a esta festividad, eminentemente agrícola, se le han sobrepuesto capas culturales que han configurado y modelado sistemas de comunicación bastante complejos”, manifiesta el fotógrafo.

Durante los distintos episodios mineros (plata y estaño particularmente), Oruro se ha vestido de presencias heterogéneas que han negociado constantemente su poder en el establecimiento de la ciudad. Es así que esta diversidad ha estado siempre en constante representación simbólica, que se ha volcado a espacios públicos para garantizar la vigencia y legitimidad de cada manifestación, explica.

“Los escenarios, los gestos y la materialidad del Carnaval obedecen a procesos muy particulares. La dinámica de un ciclo ritual y la consolidación de cada una de las etapas que lo componen, pone en evidencia la profundidad histórica de la región y de la serranía sobre la que se desarrolla, no pudiendo establecer en la actualidad la pureza de alguno de ellos, porque sabemos más bien que la riqueza de este fenómeno cultural radica no solamente en la maravillosa visualidad de las culturas populares de la Bolivia contemporánea, sino también, como hemos visto, en la pervivencia y coexistencia de estas capas culturales de la historia que se manifiestan en distintos espacios y momentos del rito que conlleva la fiesta más grande del universo en su proceso complejo”.

Carnaval en los Yungas de Bolivia

La celebración de Carnaval en la región yungueña de Bolivia también tiene sus peculiaridades, los afrodescendientes también se organizan con entradas carnavaleras y elaboran todo un rol para dicha jornada, convocando a todos los pobladores de cada municipio, el festejo va más allá de la destacada saya afro.

“La saya afroboliviana tiene su génesis con elementos propios de la cultura africana y las recreadas en el contexto yungueño, producto de una simbiosis cultural con el aymara y el ‘blanco’. Se constituye en una integralidad social cultural donde los elementos como los ritos, la música, la danza, la vestimenta, entre otros hacen que la manifestación de la saya sea compleja desde sus orígenes hasta la actualidad”. De esta manera inicia su aporte Martin Miguel Ballivián, magíster en educación intercultural bilingüe y hermano de la fascinante cultura afrodescendiente.

Pero esta cultura ofrece mucho más que sólo saya; ellos hacen gala de otros ritmos que no son muy conocidos y que, a pesar del tiempo, procuran mantener dentro de sus tradiciones. El Carnaval, para ellos, es tiempo de regocijo y de reconocimiento de toda esta riqueza cultural, un tanto débil por desconocida. Por eso mismo, esta nota pretende compartir estos saberes y generar más empatía con nuestro abundante tesoro cultural.

El huayño negro o “cueca negra”

“Denominado por nuestros abuelos como matrimonio negro. Es en este espacio festivo donde están presentes dos danzas principales que en la actualidad se pretende recuperar —el huayño negro y el baile de la tierra o ‘cueca negra’—. Son danzas con esencia africana pero también con una influencia mestiza”. Ballivián aporta que también se la conoce como la “zamacueca” o “zamba-cueca” y representa “el baile de la tierra” que a veces se la suele confundir con la zamba, pero en origen esta danza destaca por ser africana, es una “cueca afroboliviana” que se caracteriza por cantos dedicados a los novios, inspirada en la relación futura que va a tener la pareja. En tiempos de Carnaval, resulta muy recurrente por ser parte vital de todo el conglomerado de tradiciones. La cueca afro en los Yungas es ejecutada con los tambores, sobre todo el Tambor Mayor y la presencia de las cajas para darle una variación rítmica a la fiesta.

La zemba es otra danza que hace referencia a un grupo etno-lingüístico que vive al sur de Angola en la parte norte de Namibia. Se trata de un canto-baile importante para esta región. Su canto es a menudo un cuento que hace alusión al día a día y otros acontecimientos sociales como funerales.

Para cerrar, rescatamos una cita del libro fotográfico de Echevers: “La fiesta entendida como un conjunto extraordinario de hechos humanos, reflejada en lo que ‘sabe’ el pueblo, que trasunta en lo que ‘hace’ y finalmente encuentra como significante en lo que ‘siente’; nos lleva por un recorrido que trasciende una visión simple de disfrute y goce”.

Es ese el enfoque que esta nota quiere plasmar, nuestro Carnaval no sólo es fiesta; sino que también nos invita a realizar un viaje cultural e introspectivo a través de las venas de nuestro origen e identidad.

Fuente: Los Tiempos

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